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Table 1.6 Nobel prizes awarded in bioelectromagnetism and closely related subject areas


Year  Name of recipientNationalitySubject of research

1901Jacobus van't Hoff *)The Netherlands     laws of chemical dynamics     
and osmotic pressure
1903Svante Arrhenius *)Swedentheory of electrolytic
dissociation
1906Camillo Golgi
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
     
Italy
Spain
work on the structure of
nervous system
1920Walther Nernst *)Germanywork in thermochemistry
1924Willem EinthovenThe Netherlandsdiscovery of electro-
cardiogram mechanism
1932Edgar Douglas Adrian
Sir Charles Sherrington
Britain
Britain
discoveries regarding
function of neurons
1936Sir Henry Hallet Dale
Otto Loewi
Britain
Germany
work on chemical trans-
mission of nerve impulses
1944Joseph Erlanger
Herbert Spencer Gasser
U.S.
U.S.
researches on differentiated
functions of nerve fibers
1949Walter Rudolf HessSwitzerlanddiscovery of function of
middle brain
1961Georg von BékésyU.S.discoveries of the physical
mechanism of the inner ear
1963Sir John Eccles
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Andrew Fielding Huxley
Australia
Britain
Britain
study of the transmission
of nerve impulses along a
nerve fibre
1967Ragnar Arthur Granit
Haldan Keffer Hartline
George Wald
Finland
U.S.
U.S.
discoveries about chemical
and physiological visual
processes in the eye
1968Lars Onsager *)U.S.work on theory of thermo-
dynamics of irreversible
processes
1970Julius Axelrod
Sir Bernard Katz
Ulf von Euler
U.S.
Britain
Sweden
discoveries concerning the
chemistry of nerve
transmission
1981David Hunter Hubel
Torsten Nils Wiesel
U.S.
Sweden
discoveries concerning
information processing
in the visual system
1991Erwin Neher
Bert Sakmann
Germany
Germany
discoveries concerning
the function of single
ion channels in cells

1997Paul D. Boyer
John E. Walker
Jens C. Skou
*)
U.S.
U.K.
Denmark
the enzymatic mechanism
underlying the synthesis of ATP;
discovery of an ion-transporting
enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase
2003Peter Agre
Roderick MacKinnon
*)
U.S.
U.S.
discoveries concerning
channels in cell membranes

*) Nobel Prize in chemistry. All other prizes were received in physiology or medicine.