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David S. Holder (ed.)

Electrical Impedance Tomography

Institute of Physics Publishing
Bristol and Philadelphia, 2005. 465 p.

    
    1   ALGORITHMS 
    
      1. THE RECONSTRUCTION PROBLEM 1.1. Why is EIT so hard? 3 1.2. Mathematical setting 4 1.3. Measurements and e1ectrodes 9 1.4. Regularizing linear ill-posed prob1ems 10 1.5. Regularizing EIT 19 1.6. Total variation regularization 23 1.7. Jacobian calculations 28 1.8. Solving the forward problem: the finite element method 32 1.9. Measurement strategy 42 1.10. Numerical examples 47 1.11. Common pitfalls and best practice 50 1.12. Further developments in reconstruction algorithms 52 1.13. Practical applications 54
    2   HARDWARE
      2. EIT INSTRUMENTATION 2.1. Introduction 67 2.2. EIT system architecture 67 2.3. Signal generation 69 2.4. Voltage measurement 88 2.5. Example EIT systems 95 2.6. Discussion and conclusion 101
    3  APPLICATIONS
      3. IMAGING OF THE THORAX BY EIT 3.1. General introduction 107 3.2. Equipment 107 3.3. Cardiac imaging 110 3.4. Pu1monary perfusion measurements 113 3.5. Assessment of regional lung function 117 3.6. General summary and future perspectives 123 4. EIT OF BRAIN FUNCTION 4.1. Introduction 127 4.2. Physiological basis of EIT of brain function 129 4.3. EIT systems developed for brain imaging 137 4.4. EIT of slow evoked physiological activity in the brain 148 4.5. EIT of epilepsy 154 4.6. EIT in stroke 157 4.7. EIT of neuronal depolarization 159 4.8. Conclusion and future work 160 5. BREAST CANCER SCREENING WITH EIT 5.1. Rationale for using impedance measurements for breast cancer screening 167 5.2. Different approaches to breast EIT 171 5.3. Clinical results summaries 173 6. APPLICATIONS OF EIT IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT 6.1. Rationale for EIT within the gastrointestinal tract 186 6.2. Methods of measurement of gastric emptying 188 6.3. Ultrasonography 190 6.4. EIT to measure gastric emptying 191 6.5. Published data in support of EIT as a valid method to assess gastric volume and residence time 194 6.7. Paediatric studies 200 6.8. Recent applications: use of EIT to measure gastric emptying during continuous infusion of nasogastric feed 201 6.9. Summary 201 6.10. General conclusions 202 7. OTHER CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF EIT 7.1. Hyperthermia 207 7.2. EIT imaging of intra-pelvic venous congestion 208 7.3. Other possible applications 209
    4  NEW DIRECTIONS
      8. MAGNETIC INDUCTION TOMOGRAPHY 8.1. Introduction 213 8.2. The MIT signa1 214 8.3. Coils and screening 215 8.4. Signal demodulation 218 8.5. Cancellation of the primary signa1 218 8.6. Working imaging systems and proposed applications 220 8.7. Image reconstruction 225 8.8. Spatial resolution, conductivity resolution and noise 228 8.9. Propagation delays 230 8.10. Multi-frequency measurements 230 8.11. Imaging permittivity and permeability 231 8.12. Conclusions 232 9. MAGNETIC RESONANCE EIT 9.1 Introduction 239 9.2. Problem definition 242 9.3. Forward problem and numerical techniques 244 9.4. Measurement techniques in MREIT 256 9.5. Image reconstruction algorithms 260 9.6. MREIT images 274 9.7. Possible applications of MREIT 288 9.8. Current status and future of MREIT research 289 10. ELECTRICAL TOMOGRAPHY FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 10.1. Introduction 295 10.2. Data acquisition 298 10.3. Data processing 307 10.4. Industrial applications of electrical tomography 312 10.5. Summary 338 11. EIT: THE VIEW FROM SHEFFIELD 11.1. Beginnings 348 11.2. Making images: applied potential tomography 349 11.3. Differential imaging 352 11.4. Collecting data 355 11.5. Multifrequency images 359 11.6. The third dimension 363 11.7. Clinical studies 364 11.8. What we have learned 365 11.9. The future of medical EIT 368 12. EIT FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS AT OXFORD BROOKES 1985-2003 13. THE RENSSELAER EXPERIENCE 13.1. Early developments 388 13.2. Reconstruction algorithms 391 13.3. Hardware 395 13.4. Applied currents 398 13.5. Optimal currents 399 13.6. Static in vivo images with non-circular boundary and optimal currents 400 13.7. 3D 400 13.8. In vivo applications 401 13.9. Paying for it 403 13.10. People 404 13.11. Meetings 405 13.12. Concluding remarks 406
    APPENDIXES
      APPENDIX A. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO BIOIMPEDANCE A.l. Resistance and capacitance 411 A.2. Impedance in biological tissue 416 A.3. Other related measures of impedance 418 A.4. Impedance measurement 420 A.5. Relevance to EIT 421 APPENDIX B. INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL EIT B.l. Historical perspective 423 B.2. EIT instrumentation 425 B.3. EIT image reconstruction 435 B.4. Clinical applications 439 B.5. Current developments 445